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                    盼望复工的父母遭遇最大难题:家中儿童谁来看管?

                    盼望复工的父母遭遇最大难题:家中儿童谁来看管?

                    美联社 2020年06月01日
                    儿童保育?;锌赡芷苹得拦玫闹匦露酝饪?。

                    一位新泽西州的单身面包师,因为要照顾儿子而接受了无薪水的休假。一名纽约州的大学员工在得知一家照顾她患有自闭症女儿的托儿中心关门后,意识到此后她可能永远不会再重返办公室。一位犹他州的新妈妈牺牲假期时间来换取每天两小时的休假。

                    新冠疫情带来的儿童保育?;斯偻?亚洲最大唯一授权网站,有可能破坏美国经济的重新对外开放龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。据美国城市研究所(Urban Institute)在全国范围内调查的数据显示,受疫情影响,超过三分之一的家庭因为要照顾孩子而不得不牺牲某位家庭成员的工作。

                    大部分州的公立学校在本学年的剩余时间里都不会开学龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,今年许多夏令营将不再开放龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。成千上万的日间托儿所也被迫关闭,而有些则只对疫情期间依然坚守岗位的工作者的子女开放。此外,许多父母曾依赖的非正式亲友网络,如今在社交距离的限制下已经逐渐瓦解。

                    在新泽西州马纳霍金的一家ShopRite工作的夜间面包师丹?卡皮拉,如今只能选择无薪休假。

                    疫情爆发前,他的父母轮流照顾卡皮拉7岁的儿子加文,但是现在他担心这会增加他们感染病毒的风险,特别是他们还和他90岁的祖母生活在一起龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。

                    卡皮拉的经理允许他白天工作,但由于学校???,所以这并不能帮到他。白天,卡皮拉需要在家指导儿子学习网课。他迫切地等待着夏天的到来,希望那时病毒已经消退龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,儿子能正常上学,父母也可以回到身边龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。

                    “我的双手被束缚住了,我没有可靠的计划?!笨ㄆだ档?。

                    这种不确定性将持续数月龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。多地的学校官员均表示,远程学习可能至少会持续到下一学年的某个时间。

                    据美国幼儿教育协会(National Association for the Education of Young Children)估计龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,全国一半的儿童保育机构已经关闭。该协会与美国进步中心(Center for American Progress)的一项研究预测龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,如果没有大量援助龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,450万儿童保育的名额可能会消失。

                    美国最大的私立儿童教育连锁机构KinderCare表示,在国家实施封闭政策,落实社会距离措施后,该公司失去了90%的业务。

                    这家总部位于俄勒冈州波特兰的公司最开始暂停了除450家中心以外的所有业务,这些中心是为疫情期间依然坚守工作岗位的工作者的孩子提供服务。该公司希望在6月前重新开放。

                    “至少在获得疫苗前,我们都会身处这个敏感的世界?!?KinderCare的首席执行官汤姆?怀亚特表示,“我们必须习惯这一点龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站?龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站!?

                    为了减轻幼托机构在疫情后的复业压力龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,美国民主党议员正在向国会争取通过一项新法案,该法案拟为这些机构提供500亿美元的资金援助龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。如此一来,幼托机构就可以购买更多的防疫物资,在减少入园儿童数量以保证安全距离的同时,也不会面临太大的资金压力龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。在参议院方面,爱荷华州和佐治亚州的两位共和党参议员也正在呼吁国会在下一轮的流行病救助方案中增加250亿美元的幼托行业援助。

                    事实上,国会已经在今年3月向幼托行业拨款35亿美元,但由于申请过程繁琐、资格审核困难等问题,援助金迟迟到不了幼托机构的手中。

                    劳丽?弗莱彻是一位家政服务经营者,她把托儿所开在了自己密歇根的家里龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,专门帮顾客照看小孩。疫情爆发以后,该州政府禁止了大部分家庭把孩子寄托在机构的行为,只有少数双职工工人可以在迫不得已的情况下继续托管他们的子女,弗莱彻的收入由此直线下降。然而,像她这一类的私人幼托所并没有商业执照,所以也不能申请救助保障金,最后弗莱彻不得不解雇了她的全职助理。

                    “现在,我们基本上是为了那些工人子女才继续营业的?!备ダ吵顾档?。

                    根据美国劳工统计局(U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)的数据,自今年3月以来龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,已经有超过33万名儿童看护人员惨遭失业下岗。

                    “如果幼托所都倒闭了龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,那很多家长会发现自己根本不可能放心地复工?!泵拦九芍行模∟ational Women’s Law Center)的学龄前儿童保育主任凯瑟琳?怀特说道。为了帮助到更多的幼托机构,该中心组建了一个由500多家幼托所组成的家政联盟龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,坚决支持并呼吁500亿美元的救助金法案龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。

                    “女性明显更可能牺牲自己?!被程刂赋?龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,相较于父亲,即便是没有疫情,当孩子遇到成长困难的时候,母亲们也可能会被迫离开自己的岗位回归到家庭去照顾孩子?!翱墒?,女性也是劳动力市场的半边天。如果女性不能回去工作,我们的经济会变成什么样子?”

                    萨曼莎?什林鲍姆是位于纽约的佩斯大学(Pace University)的项目经理,同时也是一个3岁女孩的母亲龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,如今她正在向上级申请更弹性的工作时间龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。她的女儿妮娜患有自闭症,能够找到一所合适的特殊幼托机构本就是难上加难龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,在得知女儿常去的那家托儿所关门歇业的那一瞬间龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,绝望的感觉向她袭来。

                    妮娜的病需要接受语言治疗,这位母亲现在一边在家工作,一边照顾女儿。她的丈夫是一位房地产销售龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,有时也会回家帮帮她龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,但更多的时候还是要出去工作。

                    “我不能保证我手头的电子报表100%准确无误,因为我会分心去看孩子的一举一动×斯偻?亚洲最大唯一授权网站!笔擦直诽鞠⒌?,“我可能会回去和我的父母住上一段时间,就算这样,未来的一切还是只能顺其自然龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站?!?

                    最近,一些新冠肺炎的儿童患者在确诊后还出现了严重的并发性多系统炎症,这也在很大程度上加重了政府对于幼托机构开放问题的担忧,纽约州州长安德鲁?科莫下令取消接下来所有的夏令营活动。家长们也开始为幼托机构的安全性问题而烦恼,在是否还要托管孩子的抉择间犹疑不定。

                    萨拉?阿德尔曼的选择是“不”龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。作为一名在盐湖城工作的市场部经理,为了照顾7个月大的女儿,她每个工作日都不得不用自己年假里的时长来请两小时的假回家龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。即使是这样,出于安全担忧,她依然没有选择把孩子送回刚刚复业的日托中心。

                    “每个人都有不同的考量,”阿德尔曼感慨道,“很难说哪一种选择是正确的?!保ú聘恢形耐?

                    编译:于佳鑫、陈怡轩

                    一位新泽西州的单身面包师,因为要照顾儿子而接受了无薪水的休假龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。一名纽约州的大学员工在得知一家照顾她患有自闭症女儿的托儿中心关门后,意识到此后她可能永远不会再重返办公室。一位犹他州的新妈妈牺牲假期时间来换取每天两小时的休假。

                    新冠疫情带来的儿童保育?;?,有可能破坏美国经济的重新对外开放。据美国城市研究所(Urban Institute)在全国范围内调查的数据显示,受疫情影响龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,超过三分之一的家庭因为要照顾孩子而不得不牺牲某位家庭成员的工作。

                    大部分州的公立学校在本学年的剩余时间里都不会开学,今年许多夏令营将不再开放。成千上万的日间托儿所也被迫关闭龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,而有些则只对疫情期间依然坚守岗位的工作者的子女开放。此外,许多父母曾依赖的非正式亲友网络,如今在社交距离的限制下已经逐渐瓦解。

                    在新泽西州马纳霍金的一家ShopRite工作的夜间面包师丹?卡皮拉,如今只能选择无薪休假。

                    疫情爆发前,他的父母轮流照顾卡皮拉7岁的儿子加文,但是现在他担心这会增加他们感染病毒的风险,特别是他们还和他90岁的祖母生活在一起龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。

                    卡皮拉的经理允许他白天工作,但由于学校???,所以这并不能帮到他。白天,卡皮拉需要在家指导儿子学习网课。他迫切地等待着夏天的到来,希望那时病毒已经消退,儿子能正常上学,父母也可以回到身边。

                    “我的双手被束缚住了,我没有可靠的计划?!笨ㄆだ档?龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。

                    这种不确定性将持续数月。多地的学校官员均表示,远程学习可能至少会持续到下一学年的某个时间。

                    据美国幼儿教育协会(National Association for the Education of Young Children)估计龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,全国一半的儿童保育机构已经关闭。该协会与美国进步中心(Center for American Progress)的一项研究预测龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,如果没有大量援助,450万儿童保育的名额可能会消失。

                    美国最大的私立儿童教育连锁机构KinderCare表示,在国家实施封闭政策,落实社会距离措施后,该公司失去了90%的业务。

                    这家总部位于俄勒冈州波特兰的公司最开始暂停了除450家中心以外的所有业务,这些中心是为疫情期间依然坚守工作岗位的工作者的孩子提供服务。该公司希望在6月前重新开放。

                    “至少在获得疫苗前,我们都会身处这个敏感的世界?!?KinderCare的首席执行官汤姆?怀亚特表示,“我们必须习惯这一点龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站?!?

                    为了减轻幼托机构在疫情后的复业压力龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,美国民主党议员正在向国会争取通过一项新法案龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,该法案拟为这些机构提供500亿美元的资金援助。如此一来,幼托机构就可以购买更多的防疫物资,在减少入园儿童数量以保证安全距离的同时,也不会面临太大的资金压力。在参议院方面,爱荷华州和佐治亚州的两位共和党参议员也正在呼吁国会在下一轮的流行病救助方案中增加250亿美元的幼托行业援助。

                    事实上龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,国会已经在今年3月向幼托行业拨款35亿美元龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,但由于申请过程繁琐、资格审核困难等问题,援助金迟迟到不了幼托机构的手中。

                    劳丽?弗莱彻是一位家政服务经营者,她把托儿所开在了自己密歇根的家里,专门帮顾客照看小孩。疫情爆发以后,该州政府禁止了大部分家庭把孩子寄托在机构的行为,只有少数双职工工人可以在迫不得已的情况下继续托管他们的子女,弗莱彻的收入由此直线下降龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。然而,像她这一类的私人幼托所并没有商业执照,所以也不能申请救助保障金,最后弗莱彻不得不解雇了她的全职助理。

                    “现在,我们基本上是为了那些工人子女才继续营业的×斯偻?亚洲最大唯一授权网站!备ダ吵顾档?。

                    根据美国劳工统计局(U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)的数据龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,自今年3月以来龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,已经有超过33万名儿童看护人员惨遭失业下岗。

                    “如果幼托所都倒闭了龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,那很多家长会发现自己根本不可能放心地复工×斯偻?亚洲最大唯一授权网站!泵拦九芍行模∟ational Women’s Law Center)的学龄前儿童保育主任凯瑟琳?怀特说道。为了帮助到更多的幼托机构,该中心组建了一个由500多家幼托所组成的家政联盟,坚决支持并呼吁500亿美元的救助金法案。

                    “女性明显更可能牺牲自己?龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站!被程刂赋?,相较于父亲,即便是没有疫情,当孩子遇到成长困难的时候,母亲们也可能会被迫离开自己的岗位回归到家庭去照顾孩子龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站?!翱墒橇斯偻?亚洲最大唯一授权网站,女性也是劳动力市场的半边天龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。如果女性不能回去工作,我们的经济会变成什么样子龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站?”

                    萨曼莎?什林鲍姆是位于纽约的佩斯大学(Pace University)的项目经理龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,同时也是一个3岁女孩的母亲,如今她正在向上级申请更弹性的工作时间。她的女儿妮娜患有自闭症,能够找到一所合适的特殊幼托机构本就是难上加难,在得知女儿常去的那家托儿所关门歇业的那一瞬间,绝望的感觉向她袭来。

                    妮娜的病需要接受语言治疗,这位母亲现在一边在家工作,一边照顾女儿。她的丈夫是一位房地产销售龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,有时也会回家帮帮她,但更多的时候还是要出去工作龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。

                    “我不能保证我手头的电子报表100%准确无误龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,因为我会分心去看孩子的一举一动?!笔擦直诽鞠⒌懒斯偻?亚洲最大唯一授权网站,“我可能会回去和我的父母住上一段时间,就算这样,未来的一切还是只能顺其自然?!?

                    最近,一些新冠肺炎的儿童患者在确诊后还出现了严重的并发性多系统炎症,这也在很大程度上加重了政府对于幼托机构开放问题的担忧,纽约州州长安德鲁?科莫下令取消接下来所有的夏令营活动。家长们也开始为幼托机构的安全性问题而烦恼,在是否还要托管孩子的抉择间犹疑不定。

                    萨拉?阿德尔曼的选择是“不”。作为一名在盐湖城工作的市场部经理,为了照顾7个月大的女儿,她每个工作日都不得不用自己年假里的时长来请两小时的假回家龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站。即使是这样,出于安全担忧龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,她依然没有选择把孩子送回刚刚复业的日托中心。

                    “每个人都有不同的考量,”阿德尔曼感慨道龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站,“很难说哪一种选择是正确的?!保ú聘恢形耐?

                    编译:于佳鑫龙八官网-亚洲最大唯一授权网站、陈怡轩

                    A single father in New Jersey is taking unpaid leave from his job as a baker because he has no one to look after his son. A university employee in New York realizes she may never return to the office after her autistic daughter's child care center closed for good. A new mother in Utah uses vacation time to take two hours off from work each day.

                    The coronavirus pandemic has created a staggering child care crisis that threatens to undermine the reopening of the U.S. economy. More than one-third of families report that someone has stayed home from work to mind their children because of the outbreak, according to a nationwide survey by the Urban Institute, an economic policy research group.

                    Public schools in most states are closed for the remainder of the academic year. Many camps will not open this summer. Thousands of day cares are also closed, many of them following the lead of school districts, while some remain open only for children of essential workers. And the informal network of relatives and friends that many parents rely on has disintegrated in a world of social distancing.

                    Dan Cappilla saw other no choice but to take unpaid leave from his job as an overnight baker at a ShopRite in Manahawkin, New Jersey.

                    Before the pandemic his parents took turns spending the night looking after his 7-year-old son, Gavin. But he fears exposing them to the virus, especially since they live with his 90-year-old grandmother.

                    His manager offered him daytime hours, but with schools closed that didn't help. Cappilla needs to be home during the day to guide his son through remote lessons. Unable to pay next month’s rent, Cappilla is holding out for summer, when schooling won't be an issue and he hopes the virus will have ebbed enough for his parents to come back.

                    “My hands are tied," Cappilla said. “I have no solid plan.”

                    The uncertainty will endure for months. School officials from New York to Chicago have said remote learning may continue into at least part of the next academic year.

                    The National Association for the Education of Young Children, an organization of early learning professionals, estimates that half the country's child care providers are closed. A study by NAEYC and the Center for American Progress, a liberal think tank, projected that 4.5 million child care slots risk disappearing without significant aid.

                    KinderCare, the largest private child care provider in the country with nearly 1,600 locations, said it lost 90% of its business when lockdown and social distancing rules took hold.

                    The Portland, Oregon-based company initially closed all but 450 of its centers, which were left open to serve essential workers' kids. It hopes to reopen most by June.

                    “We’ll be in this heightened, sensitive world at least until we get a vaccine,” CEO Tom Wyatt said. “We have to get used to that.”

                    Congressional Democrats are introducing legislation to provide $50 billion to help child care providers offset the costs of opening safely, including procuring protective equipment and possibly enrolling fewer children to meet health guidelines. Prospects for passage are unclear, but two Republican senators, Joni Ernst of Iowa and Kelly Loeffler of Georgia, have called for the next pandemic relief package to include $25 billion for the child care industry.

                    Congress already allocated $3.5 billion for the child care industry under a pandemic relief bill passed in March, but the aid has been slow to reach providers. Many also have struggled to qualify for loans under a separate payroll protection program.

                    Laurie Fletcher, who runs a day care out of her Michigan home, has seen her income plummet since the state ordered day cares closed except for essential workers' children. But she was unable receive payroll protection because she lacked a business account and ended up laying off her full-time assistant.

                    "We are basically paying to stay open for the essential workers,” Fletcher said.

                    More than 330,000 child care workers have lost their jobs since March, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

                    “People are going to find that if there is no child care system to return to, they aren’t going to be able to go back to work,” said Catherine White, director of child care and early learning at the National Women’s Law Center, which supported a coalition of more than 500 child care providers and advocates in calling for the $50 billion relief bill.

                    “Women especially are going to pay the price,” White added, noting that even before the pandemic, mothers were more likely than fathers to leave the workforce over child care difficulties. “Women are over half the workforce. What does that mean for our economy if women can’t go back to work?”

                    Samantha Shlimbaum, a program manager at Pace University in New York, is counting on her employer's flexibility. She was heartbroken to learn that her 3-year-old daughter's after-school center closed down. It was one of of the few that would accept Nina, who is autistic and attends a special-needs preschool.

                    With the preschool also closed, Shlimbaum is now working from home while caring for her daughter, who requires speech therapy. Her husband helps, but he eventually will return to work as a real estate agent.

                    “I can't sit in front of a spreadsheet and ensure it is 100% accurate. I get distracted with my kid in the background,” Shlimbaum said. "We might go and stay with family for a while, but beyond that, it will be the way it is.”

                    A rare and serious inflammatory condition in children that's linked to the coronavirus is also exacerbating child care problems.

                    The syndrome influenced New York City Gov. Andrew Cuomo's decision not to reopen summer school classrooms and has parents agonizing over whether to it's safe to send children to day care.

                    Sara Adelman, a marketing manager working from home in Salt Lake City, is burning through paid vacation time to take the last two hours off each workday to look after her 7-month-old daughter. Even so, she couldn't bring herself to put her back in day care, which reopens Monday.

                    “There’s a lot of different expectations," Adelman said. “It’s hard to know what the correct answer is.”

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